Wood-producing states such as Pará and Mato Grosso, which account for 75% of the production of sawn timber in the Amazon, have a double timber management system1. This is constituted by a regulatory system which oversees the management of properties and Sustainable Forest Management Plans (PMFS) and another chain-of-custody monitoring system that intends identification of the companies that buy and sell wood from the forest to the end user. Both are vulnerable to a series of abuses by those who wish to profit from the illegal extraction of wood. As a result, 78% of the areas in Para and 54% in Mato Grosso were illegal between 2011 and 20122 .
In 2006, new forest legislation passed part of the responsibility of forest management within the of the federal government – Ministry of the Environment – for state governments, in general, to the State Secretariat of Environment (SEMA) 3 . From one day to the next, the analysis, approval, monitoring and evaluation of the Sustainable Forest Management (PMFS) have become as well as the registration of consumers and timber producers and the monitoring of the chain of custody.
Unfortunately, this has increased the opportunities for forest fraud due to a lack of the state, as well as on account of mismanagement and corruption within SEMAs4 . Although IBAMA (Brazilian Institute of Environment and Renewable Natural Resources) continue to carry out inspection operations independently of SEMAs, their interventions are not sufficient to identify and addressing systemic failures, which allow trade in illegal timber thrive.
Regulation of the forest management and harvesting
With due authorization, trees may be legally withdrawals from both private and public lands, including federal and state protected areas. Much of the
public lands occurs in community-managed areas who live in federal settlements. Already the harvest in lands private partnerships is subject to standards that allow for the 20% of a property and the selective
much of the rest.
In Pará and Mato Grosso, the regulation of timber extraction is exercised by the respective SEMAs, through SIMLAM (Sistema Integrated Environmental Monitoring and Licensing) computerized system through which properties are
registered and monitored, and licenses for its activities are issued. The PMFS approval process is also made via SIMLAM
A PMFS is required for owners who wish to extract wood in addition to 20% of a property that may be fully deforested. It is usually elaborate for EMS pproval by a forestry engineer contracted by the owner, or by the company responsible for registering on behalf of the owner of the
ground. Once approved, it is valid for up to five years. O document specifies an MFA (Forest Management Area) within the property, which can reach up to 80% or more if the owner undertakes not to withdraw with cutback the 20%
to which you are entitled.
An MFA can be subdivided into UPAs (Units of Annual Production), according to the capacity of the owner operator to harvest the area in the period of one
year. All APPs (Permanent Preservation Areas) – environmentally sensitive – within each UPA should be excluded from logging. The remaining area to be
registered is called the FMU (Forest Management Unit).